Early, crude steam-driven elevators were refined in the ensuing decade; – in 1835 an innovative elevator called the "Teagle" was developed by the company Frost and Stutt in England. The elevator was belt-driven and used a counterweight for extra power.
The hydraulic crane was invented by Sir William Armstrong in 1846, primarily for use at the Tyneside docks for loading cargo. These quickly supplanted the earlier steam driven elevators: exploiting Pascal's law, they provided a much greater force. A water pump supplied a variable level of water pressure to a plunger encased inside a vertical cylinder, allowing the level of the platform (carrying a heavy load) to be raised and lowered. Counterweights and balances were also used to increase the lifting power of the apparatus.